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Carpet crossing; has become the defining expression in our kind of political pragmatism. When people see the light, for which, read opportunity, in another political party, they flock to it. You should recognise this as chop-chop politics. It is the only kind of politics we know; it is the only kind of politics we practice.

(1ii)
Voting By Proxy; form of voting whereby a member of a decision-making body may delegate his or her voting power to a representative, to enable a vote in absence. The representative may be another member of the same body, or external. A person so designated is called a "proxy" and the person designating him or her is called a "principal"

(1iii)
Disfranchisement; restriction of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or a practice that has the effect of preventing a person exercising the right to vote. Disfranchisement can also refer to the revocation of power or control of a particular individual, community or being to the natural amenity they have

(1iv)
Electoral Constituency; subdivision of a larger state (a country, administrative region, or other polity) created to provide its population with representation in the larger state's legislative body. That body, or the state's constitution or a body established for that purpose, determines each district's boundaries and whether each will be represented by a single member or multiple members.
[4:48 AM, 11/30/2021] Olive: 4a) A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections.
[4:53 AM, 11/30/2021] Olive: (4a)
A political party is defined as an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.

(4b)
(i) To attain power: It is the main objective of all political parties.Tgey compete with each other for the same , there is nothing wrong with the objective of gaining power as long as the competition is fair.

(ii) To pursue an ideology: A party's stand on certain social issues defines it's ideology. In modern times, mist political parties have similar ideologies which make it difficult for the common voter to decide whom to support.

(III) To have common agenda: On the basis of their ideologies, parties prepare their agendas. They aim to gather public support for their agenda in order to win elections and implement them.

(iv) To establish a government: The political party which gets the majority of votes in the elections forms the government, the parties with lesser votes from the opposition.

(v) To act as a link between people and the government: Political parties are the connecting link between people and the government. They communicate the demands and the complaints of the people to the elected leaders and on the other hand, the government tries to get the support of the people for it's policies and programs through the channel of political parties.
[5:06 AM, 11/30/2021] Olive: 2021 NECO GCE GOVERNMENT ANSWERS
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THEORY-ANSWERS

(1i)
Carpet crossing; has become the defining expression in our kind of political pragmatism. When people see the light, for which, read opportunity, in another political party, they flock to it. You should recognise this as chop-chop politics. It is the only kind of politics we know; it is the only kind of politics we practice.

(1ii)
Voting By Proxy; form of voting whereby a member of a decision-making body may delegate his or her voting power to a representative, to enable a vote in absence. The representative may be another member of the same body, or external. A person so designated is called a "proxy" and the person designating him or her is called a "principal"

(1iii)
Disfranchisement; restriction of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or a practice that has the effect of preventing a person exercising the right to vote. Disfranchisement can also refer to the revocation of power or control of a particular individual, community or being to the natural amenity they have

(1iv)
Electoral Constituency; subdivision of a larger state (a country, administrative region, or other polity) created to provide its population with representation in the larger state's legislative body. That body, or the state's constitution or a body established for that purpose, determines each district's boundaries and whether each will be represented by a single member or multiple members.
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(4a)
A political party is defined as an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.

(4b)
(i) To attain power: It is the main objective of all political parties.Tgey compete with each other for the same , there is nothing wrong with the objective of gaining power as long as the competition is fair.

(ii) To pursue an ideology: A party's stand on certain social issues defines it's ideology. In modern times, mist political parties have similar ideologies which make it difficult for the common voter to decide whom to support.

(III) To have common agenda: On the basis of their ideologies, parties prepare their agendas. They aim to gather public support for their agenda in order to win elections and implement them.

(iv) To establish a government: The political party which gets the majority of votes in the elections forms the government, the parties with lesser votes from the opposition.

(v) To act as a link between people and the government: Political parties are the connecting link between people and the government. They communicate the demands and the complaints of the people to the elected leaders and on the other hand, the government tries to get the support of the people for it's policies and programs through the channel of political parties.

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(9a)
Civil service, the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. OR The civil service is typically described as the core, permanent administrative arm of government, including permanent and pensionable officials working in government ministries, departments and agencies.

(9b)
(i) Legislative Control: The legislature controls the civil service in several ways. It lays down the objectives of government, decides the institution that will implement them and stipulates the method and policy to be followed.

(ii) Executive Control: The executive exercises direct political and administrative control over the civil service. It coordinates the activities of government ministries and administrative agencies and appoints ministers, permanent secretaries and other top civil servants.

(iii) Judic…
[5:06 AM, 11/30/2021] Olive: 8.
1. A democratic government is ruled by civilians, usually elected by the people. On the other hand,while military government is ruled by the armed forces, who do not come to power through election, but by force of arms.
2. Democracy is ruled by the constitution and reign of civil laws which are reasonably justifiable in a democratic society with civilian exercising all legislative, executive and judicial powers. while Military rule means suspension and modification of the constitution. Imposition of martial law wholesale, partially, or modified, with the military exercising all legislative, executive and sometimes judicial powers as the case may be.

3. Democracy is a product or a process rooted in the tradition of civil liberties, rights and obligations, constitutional and civil behaviors. It is a system that is based on fundamental rights, such as freedom of speech, free debate and opposition, especially by minority political parties in parliament as the case may be. while Military regime is a process, procedure or system with expertise; adapted and rooted in war and combat. It is a system rooted in martial law and forces. It is also a system that demands obedience always and in its purest essence makes no room for debate and opposition.

4. A democratic government is usually transparent, responsible and accountable to the people, who may renew its mandate to rule at election. while Military rule is largely not responsible or accountable to the people. The people may however, check it through popular civil action and so forth.

5. Democracy brings to its task the traditions of fundamental rights, legal and constitutional requirements. while Military regime uses shortcut and substitutes. It relies on martial law, military tactics and force.

6. Democracy allows for imputs, criticism and the functioning of a free press and free debate among subordinates and the people. while Military government operates a chain of command and there is little individual initiative at the bottom. The military operates by order that allows little or no deviation.

7. Democracy is rule by civil made by the elected representatives of the people in parliamentary. while Military rule is rule by decrees, edits, Martial law and emergency laws.

8. Democracy allows the assertion of rule of law as guaranteed by the constitution. while Military rule is assertion of arbitrary power, restriction of civil liberties.

9. Democracy is slow, and has the appearance of inefficiency. Action is usually voluntary and rooted in dialogue and persuasion; therefore the result achieved are usually more lasting. while Military rule operates by threat or application of force which leads to immediate obedience. It has the appearance of efficiency.

10. The mandate of a constitutional and democratic government to rule and its tenure of office is usually stipulated in the constitution or in a law and its assumption of office or continuation in power is determined by the Electorate through vote during elections. while A military regime does not have a constitutional or legal mandate to rule and its tenure of office is not owed to the people. It either voluntarily determines its own tenure or such tenure is determined by another military take over or, popular civil action by the people.
[5:06 AM, 11/30/2021] Olive: (2a)
Multi-Party System:-Definition: It is defined as system with more than two political parties contesting for political power in a country. All the parties are duly registered and recognised by law.

(2b)
(ii) What to do and how to do it: It gives
direction to the party's programme of action and/orideology and stipulates how to Achieve them.

(ii) Manifesto acts as magnetic pull: Party
manifesto is usually a magnetic pull to the
electorate i.e. to attract more members or
supporters into the party.

(iii) It educates the electorate: Manifesto
educates the electorate to have insightinto
the aims and objectives and planned
programmes of the political party.

(iv) Assessment: Party manifesto helps the
electorate to assess the party on the basis of the contents of the manifesto.
[5:20 AM, 11/30/2021] Olive: (7)

(i) Local governments help in educating people at the grassroots about the policies and actions of the federal and state governments.

(ii) They help in preserving the traditional institutions of the people in the local areas.

(iii) They bring government nearer to the people at the grassroots.

(iv) They allay feelings of insecurity and fears of ethnic domination especially if created along ethnic lines

(v) They mobilize both human and material resources for community development.

(vi) They serve as a link between the people at the grassroots and the central/state governments.

(vii) They help to provide social services to the people at the grassroots.

(viii) They encourage leadership training of the people at the grassroots.

(ix) They bring rapid development to the local areas.

(x) Local governments allow indigenes of different local areas to govern themselves according to their traditions and cultures.

(xi) They help in the maintenance of law and order.

(xii) They facilitate quick decision making in matters within their jurisdiction.

(xiii) Local governments make Bye-Laws for order and good governance of their areas.

(xiv) They create job opportunities.
Government OBJ
1-10: CDBDADAAED
11-20: BADEDEEACC
21-30: AEEEDDCCCB
31-40: ABEACDBBCC
41-50: EAEAE***
51-60: ***CBC*A

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