*WAEC GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS*
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INSTRUCTION: ANSWER FIVE(5) QUESTIONS ONLY, AT LEAST TWO QUESTION FROM EACH PART
(i) Law-making: Government is responsible for making laws in a country. Laws are made to ensure peace and order in the society. The legislature is the organ of government responsible for law-making.
(ii) Provision of social amenities: Amenities like electricity, portable water, health centers etc are provided by the government. These are necessities for human existence.
(iii) Maintenance of law and order: The maintenance of law and order is the responsibility of government. This function is usually performed by government agencies like the police.
(iv) Defence of the country: Government is responsible for defending the country against external aggression. It is the duty of the armed forces of a country to maintain the temitonal intergrity of the state.
(v) Protection of lives and property: Government is also responsible for protection of lives and property of its citizens. For example, any person can seek the police protection if there is the need for it.
(i)Types of system: The study of government helps in knowing the types and different systems of government operating in the world.
(ii)To widen people’s knowledge: The study of government helps to widen people’s knowledge about administration and other instructions involved in governance.
(iii) Political education: Government educates the people of a country on the political life or affairs of the country.
(iv) Opportunity for the leadership: The opportunity is provided for people through the study of government to become future political leaders.
(v) Decision-making: The study of government equally opens the eyes of the people for the need to take part in political decision making of a country.
(2a) Legitimacy is the general acceptance of the political system as the most appropriate and being in line with the laws of the land. Therefore a legitimate government is one that is constitutionally elected and is acceptable to the populace. In other words, Legitimacy is the support and moral recognition by the citizens which makes a govemment legal and acceptable.
(i) Good government: If the government policies are best mentioned, the people will continue to have trust and confidence in such governments For example, in the areas of providing social amenities and infrastructure. maenance of law and order, rule of law in place etc.
(ii) Legitimacy through periodic elections: A free and fair election is at symbol of legitimacy and it registers the support of the people.
(iii) Customs and tradition: Respect for the established customs and traditions of the society can help to sustain or determine legitimacy. eg hereditary as in the British monarchy,
(iv) Wider scope of political participation: The ability of the govemment so involve all sections of the people in governance helps to determine “legitimacy, eg political appointments, different interest groups etc.
(v) Ideology: The ability of the government to uphold the tenets of the states ideology will help determine legitimacy, eg. communism in China.
(3a) Delegated legislation is defined as the act of transferring powers and functions through the Acts of parliament to other organisations such as ministers, local governments, public corporations (NEPA, Water Board) e.t.c. Law made by these bodies are referred to as bye-law
(i) Bye-law: These are rules and regulations made by local governments or such a statutory body as the Nigerian Railway Corporation for the smooth running of their operations. Such rules and regulations apply only within the area of authority of the statutory body or local government.
(ii) Special procedure orders: These are orders made to meet emergencies and local needs of people. The ministers make the order and then come into force within 14days unless objections are raised against it.
(iii) Statutory instrument: These are orders, rules and regulations that come from a minister,which is governed by an act of parliament. A statutory instrument is normally published in a Gazette eg no littering of public parks
(iv) Provisional Orders: A minister may be given power to undertake a project e.g a transport corporation, but it should be confirmed by the house of assembly or on a temporary basis.
Citizenship is the legal right that a person has, to belong to a particular country. It is a situation whereby an Individual becomes a legitimate member of a country, accepting responsibility and enjoying privileges attached to it, while citizen is a legal member of a state with constitutional or legal rights in the country in which he or she resides. He enjoys certain rights and privileges and owes certain responsibilities and obligations to the state.
(i) By birth: A person is a citizen by birth if either of his parents, mother or father is a citizen of a country.
(ii) By naturalization: Somebody can become a citizen of a country where he lives through naturalization. This is possible if he can satisfy the constitutional requirements for naturalization.
(iii) Marriage or registration: If a woman is married to a person of another nationality, she can acquire the citizenship of the husband’s country through registration. For example a Nigerian woman married to a British, or a British woman married to a Nigerian
(iv) Dual citizenship: It is legitimately possible for a person to hold citizenship of two countries. For example a child born to Nigerian parents living U.S.A. becomes a US citizen. The baby is also a Nigerian because the parents are Nigerians.
(v) Honorary citizenship: An individual could be honoured with the citizenship of another country. This is made possible if the individual has distinguished himself/herself in a particular area.
Public opinion may be defined as the belief, values and attitudes, which are commonly held and expressed by the majority of the people on a given public issue. In addition, it is about what people think concerning a particular national issue or question as proposed by the government.
(i) Channels of communication: Public opinion can be determined by exploring all the channels of communication, e.g. opinions expressed in Newspapers, radio, television etc.
(ii) Opinions expressed by leaders of thought: It can be measured through opinions expressed by local leaders of thought or leaders in the representative assemblies.
(iii) Letters to government: It can be measured through the letters written by citizens to the government agencies expressing their opinions on particular issues of national importance.
(iv) Response to government policies: It can be measured through mass protests and demonstrations for or against government programmes.
A public corporation can be describe as government establishment or enterprise set up by an Act of Parliament to provide essential services like electricity, pipe borne-water, etc for the people at moderate prices.
(i) Provision of essential services: Public corporations are set up mainly to provide essential services for the people.
(ii) Raising people’s standard of living: Increase in productivity and constant supply of these essential services can improve the standard of living.
(iii) Strategic projects: To undertake some strategic projects for security reasons e.g minting, arm production, etc.
(iv) For economic growth: Efficient and adequate provision of these facilities can stimulate or generate investments for both local and foreign businessmen
(v) Provision of employment: One of the essential reasons for establishing public corporation is to create employment opportunities for the people.
(8a) Nationalism can be defined as the strong emotional awareness of belonging to a nation state which leads to the struggle against foreign rule and domination.
(i) Economic depression: The effect of the Second World War which resulted in world economic depression aided the nationalists in their struggle for political independence
(ii) British Labour Party: The influence of Labour Party in Britain in opposing the conservative party’s policy on colonization influenced the growth of nationalism in Nigeria.
(iii) Evolution of Newspapers: Newspapers like the West African Pilot published by Nnamdi Azikwe and Lagos Daily News by Herbert Macaulay contributed a lot towards nationalist activities.
(iv) The super powers: The emergence of USA and USSR as super powers after the Second World War gave impetus to nationalist activities in Nigeria and West Africa as a whole. Both countries detested colonialism and imperialism.
(v) Trade unions: Some of the trade unions, e.g. Railway Workers Union led by Michael Imoudu and others, became militant and used strike actions to back their demand for better conditions of service. They equally supported the nationalist leaders in the struggle against colonial rule.
This is December Government Answers 2022/23 I decided to shere with you guys so you can free for ever and thanks me later