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Waec Gce 2022 Biology Theory Answers


A hydrocarbon is an organic compound composed only of two elements carbon and hydrogen.



(i) Alkenes

(ii) Alkynes



They are unsaturated compounds



(i) Decrease in pressure

(ii) Finely divided zinc

(iii) Removal of hydrogen gas



(i) Electrovalent compounds conduct electricity While covalent compounds do not.

(ii) Electrovalent compounds dissolve in polar solvents While covalent compounds dissolve in non-polar solvents.



(i) High melting and boiling points

(ii) Exist mainly as solids at room temperature



(i) Ammonia, NH₃

(ii) Hydrogen chloride gas, HCl



(i) Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II)

(ii) It is a complex salt



(i) Wrought iron

(ii) Cast iron



2H₂ + O₂ →2H₂O

2 : 1 : 2

Reacting volumes;

40cm³ : 20cm³ : 40cm³

Residual volumes;

(50 – 40) (20 – 20)

= 10cm³ = 0cm³ = 40cm³

Total residual volume = 10 + 40

= 50cm³



(i)Discount allowed is the discount given to the customers for prompt payment of their account WHILE Discount received is the discount received from supplier for prompt payment of our accounts.


(ii) Discount allowed must be treated as an expenses and hence debited to discounts allowed and credited to the personal account of the customers WHILE Discount received is treated as revenue and hence it is credited to the discounts received account and debited to the personal account of the supplier.




(i) Purchase day book

(ii) sales day book

(iii) Return outwards book

(iv) Sales returns book

(v)Cash book

(vi) Petty cash book



Two errors Trial balance can reveal are;


(i)Posting of the Wrong Amount

(ii)Wrong Totaling of Subsidiary Books

(iii)Posting an Amount on the Wrong side of the Account


Three errors that does not affect Trial balance are;


(i)Error of omission

(ii)Error of commission

(iii)Error of original entry

(iv)Error of principle

(v)Error of complete reversal of entry




(i) Accumulated fund: An accumulated fund is a type of account that serves as the repository for funds that are collected over time by non-profit organizations and are above and beyond the money needed to cover operational and other expenditures.


(ii) Depreciation: It’s the reduction of a recorded cost of a fixed asset in a systematic manner until the value of the asset becomes zero or negligible.


(iii) Nominal Capital: It’s the amount of capital that a business can offer to shareholders, in the form of shares of stock. In most nations, the amount of this nominal share capital is regulated by governmental agencies that determine the financial stability of the business and the company’s ability to cover the value of those shares.


(iv) Bad debt: Bad debt is an expense that a business incurs once the repayment of credit previously extended to a customer is estimated to be uncollectible and is thus recorded as a charge off.


(v) Net profit: is the amount of money your business earns after deducting all operating, interest, and tax expenses over a given period of time.



(i)Internal fertilization

(ii)External fertilization



Fruits is a product of fertilization in flowering plants. When a grain of pollen tube for the sperm to journey down the style and fertilize the ovule. The fertilized ovules become seeds. Fertilization is the death of the flower, as the petals drop or wither at this point and the ovary starts to enlarge and ripen into what we known as fruit




(ii)red blood cells

(iii)white blood cells



(i)Buccal respiration

(ii)Lung respiration

(iii)Skin respiration






(i) The flowers are not attractive

(ii) The pollen grains are not sticky



(i) The flowers are attractive

(ii) The pollen grains are sticky



(i)Parietal placentation.

(ii) Basal placentation.



Light rays from an external object is refracted by the cornea, aqueous humour, the lens and the vitreous humour. The lens act as the fine adjustment bringing the rays to a focus on the retina. The image formed on the retina of human are inverted and diminished. The brain receives the stimulus via the optic nerves and then interprete it.



(i)Parasitic nutrition


(iii)Carnivorous nutrition


Metamorphosis can be defined as the change of form or structure in an organism after hatching or birth.



(i) Promotion of sperm production

(ii) Aids development of uterine wall

(iii) Stimulates growth of testis

(iv) Promote development of secondary sexual characters in male



(i) Production of bile

(ii) Detoxification

(iii) Deamination

(iv) Source of vitamin








When a man spins around a tree several time, there is an increase in metabolism leading to use up of energy. This as a result leads to decrease in energy and in turn causes dizziness



(i) Setting up of national park and gardens to save wildlife in their natural environment.

(ii) Poaching i.e. uncontrolled and illegal killing of game should be prevented.

(iii) Avoiding the use of pesticides that may kill off many animals

(vi) Prohibiting deforestation and encouraging afforestation



Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes male and female gametes during fertilization to form a zygote which develops into a new organism. It involves organisms of the same species.



(i) biceps (flexor)

(ii) Triceps (extensor)



(i) When one touches a hot object, the sensory receptor in the skin receives the stimulus

(ii) An impulse is transmitted from the receptor to the spinal cord, via the dorsal root/sensory neurone

(iii) The intermediate neurone in the spinal cord passes on the impulse to the motor neurone

(iv) The motor neurone then sends the impulses to an effector organ (muscle) via the ventral root

(v) All the neurones are linked by synapses across which impulses are sent

(vi) The muscle upon receiving the impulse contracts causing the hand to be withdrawn from the hot object



(i) It provides water for photosynthesis

(ii) To get rid of excess water in the plant

(iii) It helps plants to continually draw water from the soil into their stem and leaves.



(i) Growing of cover crops like grasses, sweet potato which covers the surface of the soil

(ii) Contour ploughing: ploughing along the contours of a slope to reduce the speed of runoff water.


A molar solution of a compound contains one mole or the molar mass of the compound in one dm³ of the solution.



(i) Identification of gases

(ii) Identification of acidic and metallic radicals



(i) Purification of bauxite

(ii) Electrolysis of alumina






This is because of the presence of copper which is a transition metal



(i) Methanamide is a liquid while the rest amides are crystalline solids

(ii) Melting points and boiling points of aides are much higher than expected.



(i) Heavy chemicals are produced in very large quantities in industries While fine chemicals are produced in small quantities for specific purposes

(ii) Heavy chemicals are in a crude state While fine chemicals are purified.



(i) Million’s reagent

(ii) Feeling’s solution



Graham’s law of diffusion states that at a constant temperature and pressure the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density.



RO₂/RCH₄  = √(MCH₄/MO₂)

5/(200/t) = √[(12+4)/(16×2)]

5t/200 = √16/32

t/40 = 1/√2

t = 40/√2

t = (40/√2) × (√2/√2)

t = 20√2 seconds

Time taken = 28.28 seconds.


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