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Jupub 2022 government answers is here



– Settlement of disputes:

The pre-colonial traditional rulers settled disputes. Disputes are normal in every society and pre-colonial societies in West Africa were no exception. Any dispute that arose was settled by the chiefs. Culprits were punished and the innocent were set free. This was one of the ways chiefs controlled their subjects.


– Law enforcement:

There were law enforcement institutions in place to ensure law enforcement. Some of the enforcement institutions were the Age grades, masquerades, and militant groups like the Asafo companies among the Akans. These enforcement institutions were used in controlling the subjects.


– Use of ancestral spirits:

The traditional belief that when the living misbehaved, the dead who lived in the after world could punish them, was another ingenious way of controlling the people. This belief in the underworld was common in pre-colonial times and nobody wanted to be on the wrong side of the gods hence they obeyed the laws thus helping the chiefs maintain control.


– Customs or taboos and conventions:

There were things that the traditional society frowned upon and the society never compromised on them. These were aspects of their customs, taboos, and conventions. Any infraction of the customs, taboos or conventions attracted a certain form of fine or sanctions. This way, the chiefs were able to control their subjects.


– Oath taking:

In pre-colonial times, one of the ways of ascertaining the truth was the taking of an oath, to tell the truth. There were serious repercussions for anybody who took the oath and still went ahead to tell a lie. The oath was usually taken before the gods of the land represented by the Chief Priests. Sub-chiefs were also made to swear oaths to remain loyal to the Paramount Chief. All these helped to keep them in line.



(i) A state is a territorial association of people with defined boundaries, while Government is an administrative institution within a state.


(ii) A state is more inclusive and therefore greater than government i.e. it embraces all the people and associations within a given area while Government is not as inclusive as the state.


(iii) A state is a continuing entity. It is therefore permanent. It can hardly be overthrown or changed. while Government is a temporary institution. It only lasts over a period of time. It can be overthrown


(iv) A state depends on government in carrying out its activities. while  Government is the machinery by which the functions of a state are performed.


(v) A state has its elements, as population, territory, government and sovereignty. Government has its main organs as the legislature, executive and judiciary.





E Government is defined as the employment of the internet and the world wide web for delivering government information and services to the citizen. E government describes the use of technology to facilitate the operation of government and the dispersement of information and services.





(i)Ultimate goal: The ultimate goal of the E government is to be able to offer an increased portfolio of public services to citizens in an efficient and cost effective manner. E-government allows for government transparency. This is important because it allows the public to be informed about what the government is working on as well as the policies they are trying to implement.


(ii)Efficient performance: Many changes such as marital status or addresses can be a long process and take a lot of paper work for citizens. E-government allows these tasks to be performed efficiently with more convenience to individuals.


(iii)Political participation: E-government is an easy way for the public to be more involved in political campaigns. It could increase voter awareness which could lead to an increase in citizen participation in elections.


(iv)Convenient and cost effective: It is convenient and cost-effective for businesses and the public benefits by getting easy access to the most current information available without having to spend time, energy and money to get it.


(v)Accessibility: E-government helps to simplify processes and makes access to government information more easily accessible for public sector agencies and citizen


(vi) Accountability: E Government transparency will give insight to the public on how decisions are made and hold  elected officials or accountable for their actions. The public public servants could become a direct and prominent influence in government legislation to some degree.


(vii)Interaction with computers: E government allows the citizen to interact with computers to achieve objectives at any time and any location and eliminates the necessity for physical travel to government agents sitting behind desks and windows.


(viii)Quicker processing time: Improved accounting and record keeping can be noted through computerization and information and forms can be easily accessed, equating quicker processing time.





  1. Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections, on a non-discriminatory basis.


(2) Every adult citizen has the right to access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters.


(3) No eligible citizen shall be denied the right to vote or disqualified from registration as a voter, otherwise than in accordance with objectively verifiable criteria prescribed by law, and provided that such measures are consistent with the State’s obligations under international law.


(4) Every individual who is denied the right to vote or to be registered as a voter shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively.


(5) Every voter has the right to equal and effective access to a polling station in order to exercise his or her right to vote.


(6) Every voter is entitled to exercise his or her right equally with others and to have his or her vote accorded equivalent weight to that of others.


(7) The right to vote in secret is absolute and shall not be restricted in any manner whatsoever.

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