Exam Answers

Ijmb 2022 Geography Answers

Continental crust or sial: The upper part consist of sedimentary and granite rocks’ and forms the continents. Its major constituent elements are silica and aluminum. So, it is termed as sial. Its average thickness ranges between 10-12 km.

b. Oceanic crust or Sima: The lower part of other Crust is known as oceanic crust. Its thickness is around 5 km. This layer is rich in silica and Magnesium. Therefore, it is called Sima. The lower continuous layer is mostly composing of silica and magnesium and so it is termed as sima. The mean density of this layer is 2.95gm. Conrad discontinuity between Sial and Sima and Mohorovicic discontinuity between Crust and Mantle are the major discontinues in the crust. 2. The Mantle: The portion of the earth’s interior, lying beneath the crust and above the core is known as mantle. It is largely made up of basic silicates, rich in iron and magnesium. It extends from 60 to 2,900km. The density of this layer from 3.3 to 5.7gm. The mantle has two parts. a. Upper Mantle: This is the outer layer of the Mantle known as Asthenosphre. Most of the earthquakes and volcanoes take birth due to disorder in this layer. b. Lower Mantle: This is the lower layer of the Mantle known as Mesosphere and it is in solid form. Repetti discontinuity between Asthenosphere and Mesosphere and Gutenberg discontinuity between Mantle and Core are the major discontinues in the mantle 3. The core: The core is the central part of the earth’s interior. It extends from the lower boundary of the mantle to the centre of the earth for about 6,400 kms. The most important materials of core are nickel and ferrous (Nife). The core consists of two layers, namely

. a. Outer core: It is the outer layer of the Core consisting hard molten rocks. Most of the materials are in molten form. It extends from 2900km to 4980km. b. Inner core: It is the lower layer of the Core with very high temperature and pressure. Most of the materials are in solid form therefore, it is called solid core. The average temperature of this layer is around 2900° C. Transition discontinuity is found between Outer. Core and Inner Core.Read more on Sarthaks.

*[6/20, 3:46 PM] EXAM EMPIRES: *QUESTION 7*

*IJMB 2022 GEOGRAPHY* 👑

i)Soil degradation is

the physical, chemical and biological decline in soil quality. It can be the loss of organic matter, decline in soil fertility, and structural condition, erosion, adverse changes in salinity, acidity or alkalinity, and the effects of toxic chemicals, pollutants or excessive flooding. Soil degradation can involve:

ii) water erosion (includes sheet, rill and gully erosion)

iii) wind erosion

iiv) salinity (includes dryland, irrigation and urban salinity)

loss of organic matter

fertility decline

iv) soil acidity or alkalinity

MS: *QUEZTION 9*

*GEOGRAPHY IJMB 2022* 👑

*(1)Pay Dirt*

RainforestsTropical rainforests are warm and wet. The soil in the rainforest is nutrient-rich. The warm, wet conditions cause vegetation and animals to rot very quickly once they’ve died. Decaying plants and animals get recycled back into the soil.

*(2)Lots of Life*

RainforestsMore than half of the world’s species live in tropical rainforests. Some scientists think the number could be as high as 90 percent! The moisture and the warm temperatures in the tropical rainforest are perfect for sustaining lots of different species of plants and animals.

(3) *What’s the Point?*

RainforestsTrees in the tropical rainforest can grow very tall. Leaves are usually thick and have pointed “drip tips” to help rain roll off them. Tree trunks are wide and flared and tree bark is thin and smooth. Some trees have roots that are above the ground.

*(4) Ecosystem in a Plant*

RainforestsThe tropical rainforest is also home to bromeliads. These are plants that collect water in their centers. The water forms pools that can support miniature ecosystems! Many of these pools support bacteria, insects, crustaceans, tadpoles, frogs and even birds!

*(5) Growing in the Air*

RainforestsThe rainforest is also home to epiphytes. Epiphytes don’t grow in the soil. They grow on a host plant, usualy a tree, and get their nutrients from the moisture and dust in the air. Ferns, lichens, mosses, orchids, and bromeliads are all epiphytes. The tropical rainforest is also home to nepenthes or pitcher plants. These are plants that grow in the soil. They have leaves that form a cup where moisture gathers. Pitcher plants capture insects in these cups!

*: *QUESTION 6*

*2022 IJMB GEOGRAPHY* 👑

*(1) Put a price on carbon*

Cutting emissions starts with clear policy signals.

Carbon pricing systems – such as emissions trading systems that cap emissions or carbon taxes that charge per ton – send a long-term signal to companies by creating an incentive to reduce polluting behaviors and to invest in cleaner energy choices and low-carbon innovation.

(2) *End fossil fuel subsidies*

Fossil fuel subsidies send a different signal – one that can encourage waste and discourage low-carbon growth. By phasing out harmful fossil fuel subsidie.

*(3)Build low-carbon, resilient cities*

Getting prices right is one part of the equation. Another piece is building a sustainable future, because all development happens in the context of climate change.

(4) *Increase energy efficiency and use of renewable energy*

When we talk about energy, we have to talk about access. Worldwide, about 1.2 billion people lack access to electricity and 2.8 billion rely on solid fuels for cooking, such as wood, charcoal, and coal, which cause harmful indoor air pollution.

*QUESTION 1*

*IJMB 2022 GEOGRAPHY*

(1.)t: The outer or upper most layer of the earth is the crust. It is solid and is the thinnest and lightest part. It is 6to 60 kms thick. It has two layers.

(6a)

Marriage is a formal union , social and legal contract between two individuals that unites their lives legally, economically, and emotionally

(6b)

(i) For companionship

(ii) To signify a life-long commitment

(ii) For legal status and financial security

===========================

*SECTION B*

Answer Two Questions Only

===========================

(7a)

Epidemiology is the branch of medical science that investigates all the factors that determine the presence or absence of diseases and disorders.

(7bi)

A causative agent is an organism or chemical that is responsible for the development of a disease.

(7bii)

Transmission route is the pathway of causative agents from a source to infection of a susceptible host

(7biii)

Susceptible host is the organism that will feel the effects of the infectious disease that has traveled through the chain of infection.

(7c)

The vertebral column, also known as the spinal column, is the central axis of the skeleton in all vertebrates. The vertebral column provides attachments to muscles, supports the trunk, protects the spinal cord and nerve roots and serves as a site for haemopoiesis

(7d)

(i) Stress

(ii) Smoking

(iii) Alcohol consumption

(7e)

Orthodox medicine is a system of medicine in which medical doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals deliver treatment for diseases and their symptoms to the patients through the use of pharmaceuticals or surgery.

===========================

(8a)

Food nutrients are the substances in food which drive biological activity, and are essential for the human body.

(8b)

(i) Builds all parts of the body

(ii) Produces energy for the body

(iii) Reduces the risk of chronic disease

(iv) Maintains the immune system

(8c)

(i) Consumer health is a social movement which preserves the right and strength of the consumer. Consumer health encourages seller and merchant to protect health of consumer by providing quality product and services.

(ii) Consumer education is the preparation of an individual to be capable of making informed decisions when it comes to purchasing products in a consumer culture.

(8di)

(i) Right to safety

(ii) Right to Information

(iii) Right to value for money

(iv) Right to consumer education

(8dii)

(i) Barrier method

(ii) Hormonal contraception

(iii) Emergency contraception

(iv) Long-acting reversible contraception

===========================

*COMPLETED.*

*(7e)

Orthodox medicine can be defined as a system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.

*

[6/20, 10:22 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: *HEALTH SCIENCE 2022*

(3)

Sewage is waste matter such as faeces, urine or dirty water from animals, industrial or domestic sources, that is dissolved or suspended in water; which flows away through sewer.

*

[6/20, 10:54 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: HEALTH SCIENCE

(4a)

MALES:

(i) Deepening of the voice

(ii) Facial hair

(iii) No breast growth

(iv) No hip growth

(v) Ejaculation

FEMALES:

(i) No significant change in voice change

(ii) No growth of facial hair

(iii) Breast growth

(iv) Hip growth

(v) Menstruation

(4b)

(i) Both consists of reproductive cells

(ii) Both consists of gonads that produce (sperm and egg or ovum)

(iii) Both organs leads to formation of gametes

*

[6/20, 10:58 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: (8c)

(i) Consumer health is a social movement seeking to secure rights and powers of the buyers in relation to seller of goods and services. Thus, consumer’s health is condition of health, which is affected by consuming goods and services available in the market.

(ii) Consumer education is the preparation of an individual to be capable of making informed decisions when it comes to purchasing products in a consumer culture.

(8d)

(i) The right to safety

(ii) The right to be informed

(iii) The right to choose

(iv) The right to be heard.

(8e)

(i) Fertility awareness

(ii) Emergency contraception

(iii) Barrier methods – condoms

(iv) Long acting reversible contraception.

*

[6/20, 10:59 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: *HEALTH SCIENCE 2022*

(5a)

(PICK ANY TWO)

(i) It prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured

(ii) It prevents the entry of bacteria and other pathogens into the body.

(iii) It plays a pivotal role in the repair of blood vessels

(5b)

(i) Salivary glands produces saliva, a digestive juice, which moistens food,to help it move more easily through your esophagus into your stomach.

(ii) Saliva also has an enzyme that begins to break down starches in your food.

(iii) In the mouth, foods are broken into small particles by mastication.

*

S: *2022 WAEC HEALTH EDUCATION*

===========================

*SECTION A*

Answer All Questions In This Section

===========================

(1a)

Vital statistics is accumulated data gathered on live births, deaths, migration, foetal deaths, marriages and divorces.

(1b)

(i) Quantities and rates of births

(ii) Characteristics of births

(iii) Quantities and rates of deaths

===========================

(2)

(i) Femur

(ii) Patella

(iii) Tibia

(iv) Fibula

===========================

(3)

Sewage is a liquid containing wastes from households, industrial and agricultural activities discharged into water.

===========================

(4a)

[TABULATE]

=MALES=

(i) Testes and scrotum grows

(ii) Production of sperm

(iii) Broadening of the shoulder

(iv) No menstruation occur

(v) The voice deepens

=FEMALES=

(i) Breasts grow

(ii) Production of egg

(iii) Broadening of the hips

(iv) Menstruation occurs

(v) The voice becomes sweet

(4b)

(i) Both systems have gonads that produce sperm or egg

(ii) Both systems experience maturation of their reproductive organs

(iii) Both produce an increasing number of hormones at puberty

===========================

(5a)

(i) It prevents excessive bleeding

(ii) It prevents the entry of bacteria and other pathogens into the body

(5b)

(i) Food mixes with saliva and the enzyme amylase (found in saliva), which breaks down starch into sugars.

(ii) The tongue helps in thorough mixing of food with saliva, which helps in swallowing of food called as a bolus.

===========================

[6/20, 10:05 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: 8b

It gives us energy.

It make our body strong.

It gives us nutritious.

It makes us body relief.

It makes us the vitamins.

It makes the digestive system strong.

Pick any 4

SECTION B

Epimediology is the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.

(7c) Vertebral column is made up of individual bones called as vertebrae. Total vertebral column consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 lumbar vertebrae, 5 fused sacral and 3 fused coccygeal vertebrae. Vertebral column runs from the base of the skull to the hip bone forming a tube. Spinal cord passes through this hollow tube.

(7d)dietary habits – nutrition, physical activity – general health condition – emotional well-being – physical impairment – cultural factors – life events – social support – family well-being – financial resources – cognitive functioning – diseases.

Pick any (3)

*

[6/20, 10:07 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: *HEALTH SCIENCE*

(1a)

Vital statistics is accumulated data gathered on live births, deaths, migration, foetal deaths, marriages and divorces.

(1b)

(i) Numbers and rates of births

(ii) Numbers and rates of deaths

(iii) Characteristics of birth by sex, location and maternal age

*S: *WAEC HEALTH EDUCATION*

*NUMBER (7e)*

A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.

*==================*

*==================*

(8a)

Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It includes ingestion, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion.

(8b)

_Pick only four_

*°* It gives us energy.

*°* It make our body strong.

*°* It gives us nutritious.

*°* It makes us body relief.

*°* It makes us the vitamins.

*°* It can even make the liver stronger in digestion.

*MORE LOADING*

*m

[6/20, 10:15 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: *HEALTH SCIENCE*

(2)

(i) Upper Limb

(ii) Pectoral girdle

(iii) Lower Limb

(iv) Pelvic girdle

[6/20, 10:19 AM] EXAM EMPIRES: *HEALTH SCIENCES*

SECTION B

(7a)

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution, patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined population

(7b)

(i) Causative agent: Communicable, or infectious diseases, are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Some are transmitted through bites from insects while others are caused by ingesting contaminated food or water.

(ii) Transmission route: Infectious diseases are transmitted from person to person by direct or indirect contact. Types of direct contact include Person-to-person contact, Droplet spread. Types of Indirect contact include: Food and drinking water, Contaminated objects, Airborne transmission, etc.

(iii) Susceptible hosts: After an infectious agent gets inside the body it has to multiply in order to cause the disease. In some hosts, infection leads to the disease developing, but in others it does not. Individuals who are likely to develop a communicable disease after exposure to the infectious agents are called susceptible hosts.

(7c)

In humans, the Vertebral column is made up of individual bones called as vertebrae. Total vertebral column consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 lumbar vertebrae, 5 fused sacral and 3 fused coccygeal vertebrae. Vertebral column runs from the base of the skull to the hip bone forming a tube. Spinal cord passes through this hollow tube.

(7d) (PICK ANY THREE)

(i) Age

(ii) Sleep

(iii) Dietary habits

(iv) Nutrition

(v) Physical activity

(vi) General health condition

(vii) Emotional well-being

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